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The Development History of Plywood in the World

Nov. 12, 2020

Development Path

Plywood is the oldest traditional product in the wood-based panel industry, and its application can be traced back to the seatback of the ancient Egyptian king 3,500 years ago (Richard F, 1981).

In 1812, the invention patent for the world's first veneer saw was approved in France. In 1819, Professor Feissel of Russia and Engineer Feivilier of Britain invented the peeling machine that turns wood pieces into thin wood chips. After decades of development, Germany began to produce plywood in 1850, using it to manufacture the laminate edges of grand pianos, and then successively applying them to sewing machine bodies, chair backs, chair seats, and furniture panels. But limited to backward equipment and technology, the quality of plywood products at that time was very poor. At the beginning of the 20th century, Japan, the United States, Finland, and other countries started the industrial production of plywood, and the quality of plywood has improved.

In the subsequent development process, the plywood industry broke through several important applicable technical bottlenecks:

The first is the invention of synthetic resin in 1934, which replaced all the original protein glues, making the production of plywood from the original indoor products into the production of structural materials, and even the wing of the aircraft of World War II used plywood;

The second is the invention of the double-spindle peeling machine in the 1960s, which solved the difficulty of making plywood for small-diameter plantations. The emergence of pin-free shafts and computer-assisted centering in the 1980s made the modern plywood yield rate An increase of more than 10 percentage points greatly promoted the development of the modern plywood industry.

Plywood refers to a three-layer or multi-layer plate-like material that is made from wood segments that are peeled into veneer or sliced into thin wood and then glued with adhesive, and the fiber direction of adjacent layers of veneer They are glued together perpendicular to each other. The usual length and width specifications are: 1220×2440mm and the thickness specifications are: 3, 5, 9, 12, 15, and 18mm.


Features and applications

In order to improve the anisotropic characteristics of natural wood as much as possible, and make the plywood have uniform characteristics and stable shape, the structure of plywood generally requires that the adjacent layers of veneer fibers be perpendicular to each other, and the principle of "symmetry" is required, which requires the center plane of symmetry of the plywood The veneers on both sides must be symmetrical in terms of wood properties, veneer layers, thickness, fiber direction, and moisture content.

For the same plywood, you can use a single tree species and thickness veneer, or different tree species and thickness veneer. For this reason, the number of plywood is generally three, five, seven, and other odd layers. The names of each layer are: the surface single board is called the surface board, the inner single board is called the core board; the front surface board is called the front board, and the back surface board is called the backboard; in the scoreboard, the fiber direction is parallel to the surface board. It is called the long core board or middle board.

Since the plywood is a slab made of glued veneers crisscrossed in the wood grain direction, pressed under heating or unheated conditions, it can overcome the defects of wood to a greater extent and improve the utilization rate of wood. Moreover, the difference in physical and mechanical properties in the vertical and horizontal directions is small, which can greatly improve and enhance the physical and mechanical properties of wood, and has good dimensional stability. In addition, plywood also has many advantages such as large format, the ability to retain the natural texture and color of wood, and the convenience of application and construction.

In terms of product use, most of the major industrial developed countries apply it in the construction industry, followed by shipbuilding, aviation, trucks, military industry, furniture, packaging, and other related industrial sectors; while China's plywood products are mainly used in furniture, decoration, Packaging, construction templates, carts, ships, and production maintenance.

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